Namaeh, Mashael OD, PhD; Scheiman, Mitchell M. OD, PhD, FAAO; Yaramothu, Chang PhD; Alvarez, Tara L. PhD

A Normative Study of Objective Measures of Disparity Vergence and Saccades in Children 9 to 17 Years Old

publication date
February 5, 2020
see more



This study establishes normative data for objective outcome measures of vergence and saccade eye movements for the pediatric population. These data should facilitate future clinical trial design.


This study was designed to establish normative data for objective measures of disparity vergence and saccades in children between the ages 9 and 17 years using an objective binocular eye movement tracking system.


Participants (aged 9 to 17 years) had a vision examination including refraction, accommodative, and binocular vision testing. Eligibility criteria included 20/25 visual acuity with best correction, normal accommodation, and binocular vision. The ISCAN RK-826PCI binocular tracking system (ISCAN, Woburn, MA) was used to objectively record horizontal, symmetrical disparity vergence, and saccadic eye movements. Parameters assessed included peak velocity, time to peak velocity, latency, and response amplitude for both disparity vergence and saccades.



One hundred eighteen participants were recruited (54.94% female; mean age, 13.5 years), and 77.1% (91/118) of the participants completed the assessment with usable data. A sample of the normative data included peak velocity (°/s), which had a mean ± standard deviation of 25.4 ± 2.9, 22.0 ± 3.0, 225 ± 16.7, and 332.5 ± 20.5 for 4° convergence, 4° divergence, 5° saccades, and 10° saccades, respectively. The mean ± standard deviation for the latency (seconds) measures were 0.28 ± 0.1, 0.28 ± 0.16, 0.23 ± 0.05, and 0.23 ± 0.05 for 4° convergence, 4° divergence, 5° saccades, and 10° saccades, respectively.


Normative data enable researchers to have benchmark results for comparison with patient populations with binocular dysfunction. These objective disparity vergence measures can serve as outcome measures in future clinical trials to assess the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions by determining whether post-treatment results are similar to normal data.


Vision therapy is well worth the response, time and effort. Our Son had a hard time focusing and writing neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time if previously took. His abilities to focus improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent, we wanted learning to be fun for our Son, and vision therapy made this possible.

Amanda T.

Vision Therapy is well worth the expense, time and effort. Our son had a hard time focusing handwriting neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time it previously took his abilities to focus and improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent you wanted learning to be fun for our son and vision therapy made this possible.

Alexa H.

Vision Therapy has given or son the tools he needs to be able to scan and read the written word more effectively and efficiently.

He love working with John and these working sessions give him the motivation to gladly work on his homework assignments.

It amazed us to see the difference in the tracking of his eyes and along a line of it's from the beginning to the end of the treatment.

Dr. McBryar , Kristen and John  are all marvelous and we would recommend them to anyone I only wish that we would have found them sooner!

Charlotte M.

Prior to coming to the institute for vision development my son complained of daily headaches. Therapy has eliminated his headaches completely. I love knowing my son is able to learn pain-free for the rest of his life because of the work that has been done over just a few weeks in this office. He he absolutely loved coming that didn't even feel like going to a doctor or therapy. We are grateful for the relief he was able to find by coming here.

Thank you!

Olivia C.

Seems much less frustrated with life

Reads non-stop and fast

Spelling abilities have been hugely improved

Seems much more confident

Thank You!!!

Kelly O.

When we first came to the practice, my son did not have huge issues, but lots of small ones- trouble with reading, sports (hitting the baseball consistently), coordination, etc- that were not easily detectable,but when put together presented issues. The staff here were all very professional and loving towards him. While I was concerned in the reading, my son was concerned with the athletic side. Seeing improvement night off the bat gave him confidence that i have nor seen in him and made him want to not only Come to therapy, but also made him want to work hard. He has surpassed his grade level and above in reading and hit his first home run this year! Thank you!!!

Alice M.
1 2 3 10



The impact of screen time on dry eye: tips for prevention

According to a recent study, people who spend more than 2 hours a day on digital devices are 2.5 times […]

Read More

Chattanooga pediatric eye doctor shares how children with vision problems can struggle academically

Many people believe that good eyesight is simply the ability to read the "20/20" line on an eye chart, but […]

Read More

Is there a difference between a scratched eye and a scratched cornea?

Corneal abrasions, or scratched corneas, are a common occurrence and make up a significant portion of eye injury cases. In […]

Read More
see all blogs

Contact Us To Amplify Your EyeCare

Working Hours

Monday - Thursday
8:00 am - 5:15pm
1043 Executive Drive Suite #101 Hixson, TN 37343
Website Accessibility Policy
Safety protocols page
phone-handsetarrow-uparrow-right linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram