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Accommodative responses were significantly poorer in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with age-matched typically developing control subjects, and hypoaccommodation was associated with reduced near visual acuity (NVA) and convergence.
Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a reported prevalence of 1.1 to 1.5%. Accommodative dysfunction has been noted in other developmental conditions including cerebral palsy and Down syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate how accommodative accuracy and near visual function in ASD compared with typically developing control subjects.
This study investigated accommodative function in children with ASD, in conjunction with other vision measures with habitual refractive corrections. Accommodative accuracy was assessed using modified Nott dynamic retinoscopy. Individual accommodative demand and response were calculated incorporating residual refractive error (difference between cycloplegic and habitual refractive state). Near visual measures included NVA, near point of convergence, fusional reserves, and stereoacuity. Cycloplegic autorefraction confirmed refractive error.
Accommodative responses were measured from 124 participants with ASD (6 to 17 years old) and 204 age-matched control subjects. There was no significant difference in the magnitude of residual refractive error between groups (P = .10). The prevalence of a clinically significant lag of accommodation was greater in the ASD group compared with control subjects (ASD = 17.4%, control subjects = 4.9%, χ2 = 13.04, P < .0001). Near visual acuity was significantly reduced in the ASD group with a clinically significant lag of accommodation (P < .01). A few participants (n = 24 control subjects, n = 14 ASD) had uncorrected or undercorrected refractive errors (spherical equivalent refractive error ≥+2.00 D, >1.00 DC), and when these were removed from analysis, there was still an increased prevalence of hypoaccommodation in ASD (14.7%).
Children with ASD were significantly more likely to have accommodative deficits (and associated near visual deficits) in their presenting refractive state than typically developing children. Appraisal of refractive error, accommodation, and NVA should be considered in visual assessment of children with ASD.
Vision therapy is well worth the response, time and effort. Our Son had a hard time focusing and writing neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time if previously took. His abilities to focus improved greatly and so did his handwriting.
Also, he was better at listening. As a parent, we wanted learning to be fun for our Son, and vision therapy made this possible.
Vision Therapy is well worth the expense, time and effort. Our son had a hard time focusing handwriting neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time it previously took his abilities to focus and improved greatly and so did his handwriting.
Also, he was better at listening. As a parent you wanted learning to be fun for our son and vision therapy made this possible.
Vision Therapy has given or son the tools he needs to be able to scan and read the written word more effectively and efficiently.
He love working with John and these working sessions give him the motivation to gladly work on his homework assignments.
It amazed us to see the difference in the tracking of his eyes and along a line of it's from the beginning to the end of the treatment.
Dr. McBryar , Kristen and John are all marvelous and we would recommend them to anyone I only wish that we would have found them sooner!
Prior to coming to the institute for vision development my son complained of daily headaches. Therapy has eliminated his headaches completely. I love knowing my son is able to learn pain-free for the rest of his life because of the work that has been done over just a few weeks in this office. He he absolutely loved coming that didn't even feel like going to a doctor or therapy. We are grateful for the relief he was able to find by coming here.
Seems much less frustrated with life
Reads non-stop and fast
Spelling abilities have been hugely improved
Seems much more confident
When we first came to the practice, my son did not have huge issues, but lots of small ones- trouble with reading, sports (hitting the baseball consistently), coordination, etc- that were not easily detectable,but when put together presented issues. The staff here were all very professional and loving towards him. While I was concerned in the reading, my son was concerned with the athletic side. Seeing improvement night off the bat gave him confidence that i have nor seen in him and made him want to not only Come to therapy, but also made him want to work hard. He has surpassed his grade level and above in reading and hit his first home run this year! Thank you!!!
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