Authors
MARRAN, LYNN F. OD, PhD, FAAO; DE LAND, PAUL N. PhD; NGUYEN, ANDREW L. PhD

Accommodative Insufficiency Is the Primary Source of Symptoms in Children Diagnosed With Convergence Insufficiency

publication date
February 14, 2006
Category
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Abstract/Introduction

Purpose

Accommodative insufficiency (AI) and convergence insufficiency (CI) have been associated with similar symptomology and frequently present at the same time. The severity of symptomology in CI has been linked to the severity of the CI, suggesting a dose-dependent relationship. However, with increasing severity of CI also comes increased comorbidity of AI. AI alone has been shown to cause significant symptomology. We hypothesize that AI drives the symptoms in CI with a comorbid AI condition (CIwAI) and that it is the increased coincidence of AI, rather than increased severity of CI, which causes additional symptomology.

 

Methods

Elementary school children (n = 299) participated in a vision screening that included tests for CI and AI and the CISS-V15 symptom survey. They were categorized into four groups:1) normal binocular vision (NBV); 2) AI-only; 3) CI-only; and 4) CIwAI. One hundred seventy elementary school children fell into the categories of interest.


Conclusion/Results

Results

Pairwise comparison of the group means on the symptom survey showed: 1) children with AI-only (mean = 19.7, p = 0.006) and children with CIwAI (mean = 22.8, p = 0.001) had significantly higher symptom scores than children with NBV (mean = 10.3); and 2) children with CI-only (mean = 12.9, p = 0.54) had a similar symptom score to children with NBV. Using a two-factor analysis of variance (AI and CI), the AI effect was significant (AI mean = 21.56; no AI mean = 11.56, p < 0.001), whereas neither the CI effect (p = 0.16) nor the CI by AI interaction effect (p = 0.66) were significant.

 

Conclusion. 

CI is a separate and unique clinical condition and can occur without a comorbid AI condition, our CI-only group. Past reports of high symptom scores for children with CI are the result of the presence of AI, a common comorbid condition. When AI is factored out, and children with CI only are evaluated, they are not significantly more symptomatic than children with NBV.


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Also, he was better at listening. As a parent, we wanted learning to be fun for our Son, and vision therapy made this possible.


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Vision Therapy is well worth the expense, time and effort. Our son had a hard time focusing handwriting neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time it previously took his abilities to focus and improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent you wanted learning to be fun for our son and vision therapy made this possible.


Alexa H.

Vision Therapy has given or son the tools he needs to be able to scan and read the written word more effectively and efficiently.

He love working with John and these working sessions give him the motivation to gladly work on his homework assignments.

It amazed us to see the difference in the tracking of his eyes and along a line of it's from the beginning to the end of the treatment.

Dr. McBryar , Kristen and John  are all marvelous and we would recommend them to anyone I only wish that we would have found them sooner!


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Prior to coming to the institute for vision development my son complained of daily headaches. Therapy has eliminated his headaches completely. I love knowing my son is able to learn pain-free for the rest of his life because of the work that has been done over just a few weeks in this office. He he absolutely loved coming that didn't even feel like going to a doctor or therapy. We are grateful for the relief he was able to find by coming here.

Thank you!


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Seems much less frustrated with life

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Spelling abilities have been hugely improved

Seems much more confident

Thank You!!!


Kelly O.

When we first came to the practice, my son did not have huge issues, but lots of small ones- trouble with reading, sports (hitting the baseball consistently), coordination, etc- that were not easily detectable,but when put together presented issues. The staff here were all very professional and loving towards him. While I was concerned in the reading, my son was concerned with the athletic side. Seeing improvement night off the bat gave him confidence that i have nor seen in him and made him want to not only Come to therapy, but also made him want to work hard. He has surpassed his grade level and above in reading and hit his first home run this year! Thank you!!!


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