Authors
Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Ying, Gui-shuang; Huang, Jiayan; Maguire, Maureen; Quinn, Graham; Ciner, Elise B.; Cyert, Lynn A.

Associations between Hyperopia and Other Vision and Refractive Error Characteristics

publication date
Category
see more

Abstract/Introduction

Purpose 

To investigate the association of hyperopia greater than +3.25 diopters (D) with amblyopia, strabismus, anisometropia, astigmatism, and reduced stereoacuity in preschoolers.

 

Methods 

Three- to five-year-old Head Start preschoolers (N = 4040) underwent vision examination including monocular visual acuity (VA), cover testing, and cycloplegic refraction during the Vision in Preschoolers Study. Visual acuity was tested with habitual correction and was retested with full cycloplegic correction when VA was reduced below age norms in the presence of significant refractive error. Stereoacuity testing (Stereo Smile II) was performed on 2898 children during study years 2 and 3. Hyperopia was classified into three levels of severity (based on the most positive meridian on cycloplegic refraction): group 1: greater than or equal to +5.00 D, group 2: greater than +3.25 D to less than +5.00 D with interocular difference in spherical equivalent greater than or equal to 0.50 D, and group 3: greater than +3.25 D to less than +5.00 D with interocular difference in spherical equivalent less than 0.50 D. “Without” hyperopia was defined as refractive error of +3.25 D or less in the most positive meridian in both eyes. Standard definitions were applied for amblyopia, strabismus, anisometropia, and astigmatism.


Conclusion/Results

Results 

Relative to children without hyperopia, children with hyperopia greater than +3.25 D (n = 472, groups 1, 2, and 3) had a higher proportion of amblyopia (34.5 vs. 2.8%, p < 0.0001) and strabismus (17.0 vs. 2.2%, p < 0.0001). More severe levels of hyperopia were associated with higher proportions of amblyopia (51.5% in group 1 vs. 13.2% in group 3) and strabismus (32.9% in group 1 vs. 8.4% in group 3; trend p < 0.0001 for both). The presence of hyperopia greater than +3.25 D was also associated with a higher proportion of anisometropia (26.9 vs. 5.1%, p < 0.0001) and astigmatism (29.4 vs. 10.3%, p < 0.0001). Median stereoacuity of nonstrabismic, nonamblyopic children with hyperopia (n = 206) (120 arcsec) was worse than that of children without hyperopia (60 arcsec) (p < 0.0001), and more severe levels of hyperopia were associated with worse stereoacuity (480 arcsec for group 1 and 120 arcsec for groups 2 and 3, p < 0.0001).

 

Conclusions 

The presence and magnitude of hyperopia among preschoolers were associated with higher proportions of amblyopia, strabismus, anisometropia, and astigmatism and with worse stereoacuity even among nonstrabismic, nonamblyopic children.


Testimonials


  • Vision therapy is well worth the response, time and effort. Our Son had a hard time focusing and writing neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time if previously took. His abilities to focus improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

    Also, he was better at listening. As a parent, we wanted learning to be fun for our Son, and vision therapy made this possible.


    Amanda T.

  • Vision Therapy is well worth the expense, time and effort. Our son had a hard time focusing handwriting neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time it previously took his abilities to focus and improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

    Also, he was better at listening. As a parent you wanted learning to be fun for our son and vision therapy made this possible.


    Alexa H.

  • Vision Therapy has given or son the tools he needs to be able to scan and read the written word more effectively and efficiently.

    He love working with John and these working sessions give him the motivation to gladly work on his homework assignments.

    It amazed us to see the difference in the tracking of his eyes and along a line of it's from the beginning to the end of the treatment.

    Dr. McBryar , Kristen and John  are all marvelous and we would recommend them to anyone I only wish that we would have found them sooner!


    Charlotte M.

  • Prior to coming to the institute for vision development my son complained of daily headaches. Therapy has eliminated his headaches completely. I love knowing my son is able to learn pain-free for the rest of his life because of the work that has been done over just a few weeks in this office. He he absolutely loved coming that didn't even feel like going to a doctor or therapy. We are grateful for the relief he was able to find by coming here.

    Thank you!


    Olivia C.

  • Seems much less frustrated with life

    Reads non-stop and fast

    Spelling abilities have been hugely improved

    Seems much more confident

    Thank You!!!


    Kelly O.

Blog

group-of-small-nursery-school-children-with-teache-W2UF5RU

Vision Among Us

One of the challenges with visual impairments and visual deficits is that it's difficult to detect them just by looking […]

Read More
frustrated-millennial-businessman-having-strong-headache-tired-from-laptop-work

Vision Therapy for Neurological Conditions

Each year an estimated 1.5 million Americans sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI). According to the Neuro Optometric Rehabilitation Association, […]

Read More
DSC_2077

Vision Therapy for Adults

Adults generally accept changes in themselves as part of aging, and think that there's nothing they can do about it. […]

Read More
see all blogs

Contact Us To Amplify Your EyeCare

Working Hours

Monday - Thursday
8:00 am - 5:15pm
friday-sunday
Closed
Location
1043 Executive Drive Suite #101 Hixson, TN 37343
Website Accessibility Policy
Safety protocols page
phone-handsetarrow-uparrow-right linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram