Authors
WOO, STANLEY OD, MS, FAAO; BEDELL, HAROLD E. PhD, FAAO

Beating the Beat: Reading Can Be Faster Than the Frequency of Eye Movements in Persons With Congenital Nystagmus

publication date
March 21, 2006
Category
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Abstract/Introduction

Purpose

Rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of text has been reported to foster higher reading rates than presentation in a continuous text (CT) format, possibly because scanning eye movements are minimized. We investigated how this might be relevant for persons with congenital nystagmus (CN).

 

Methods

We evaluated whether reading rates differ in persons with CN for RSVP versus CT presentation of single sentences under otherwise similar conditions. In a second experiment, we presented unrelated words to observers with CN in RSVP format while measuring their eye movements to determine whether reading can occur during the high-velocity, nonfoveating periods of the CN wave form. Both sentences and random words were selected from the MNRead corpus and displayed at 2x, 4x, or 8x the threshold word size on a 21-inch computer monitor.


Conclusion/Results

Results

Subjects with CN have virtually equivalent maximum reading speeds of 449 and 448 words per minute, respectively, for RSVP and CT presentation of sentences. Typically, reading rates were faster than the frequency of CN, which suggests that subjects could read during the nonfoveating periods of the nystagmus waveform. This finding was confirmed using random words that, unlike those in sentences, cannot be inferred from contextual cues. Examination of eye movements recorded during reading indicated that random words are read correctly with 47% to 65% accuracy (depending on word size) during the nonfoveating periods of the CN waveform.

 

Conclusion

A clinical implication of these results is that reading performance in persons with CN should be facilitated by large text sizes that remain legible during a greater fraction of the CN waveform.


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Vision therapy is well worth the response, time and effort. Our Son had a hard time focusing and writing neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time if previously took. His abilities to focus improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent, we wanted learning to be fun for our Son, and vision therapy made this possible.


Amanda T.

Vision Therapy is well worth the expense, time and effort. Our son had a hard time focusing handwriting neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time it previously took his abilities to focus and improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent you wanted learning to be fun for our son and vision therapy made this possible.


Alexa H.

Vision Therapy has given or son the tools he needs to be able to scan and read the written word more effectively and efficiently.

He love working with John and these working sessions give him the motivation to gladly work on his homework assignments.

It amazed us to see the difference in the tracking of his eyes and along a line of it's from the beginning to the end of the treatment.

Dr. McBryar , Kristen and John  are all marvelous and we would recommend them to anyone I only wish that we would have found them sooner!


Charlotte M.

Prior to coming to the institute for vision development my son complained of daily headaches. Therapy has eliminated his headaches completely. I love knowing my son is able to learn pain-free for the rest of his life because of the work that has been done over just a few weeks in this office. He he absolutely loved coming that didn't even feel like going to a doctor or therapy. We are grateful for the relief he was able to find by coming here.

Thank you!


Olivia C.

Seems much less frustrated with life

Reads non-stop and fast

Spelling abilities have been hugely improved

Seems much more confident

Thank You!!!


Kelly O.

When we first came to the practice, my son did not have huge issues, but lots of small ones- trouble with reading, sports (hitting the baseball consistently), coordination, etc- that were not easily detectable,but when put together presented issues. The staff here were all very professional and loving towards him. While I was concerned in the reading, my son was concerned with the athletic side. Seeing improvement night off the bat gave him confidence that i have nor seen in him and made him want to not only Come to therapy, but also made him want to work hard. He has surpassed his grade level and above in reading and hit his first home run this year! Thank you!!!


Alice M.
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