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Molina, Rubén MS∗; Redondo, Beatriz PhD; Vera, Jesús PhD1; García, José Antonio PhD; Muñoz-Hoyos, Antonio MD, PhD; Jiménez, Raimundo PhD

Children with Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Show an Altered Eye Movement Pattern during Reading

publication date
February 7, 2020
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by oculomotor abnormalities. However, the eye movement pattern of children with ADHD during reading has yet to be fully determined. This investigation provides novel insights into the altered eye movement pattern during oral reading of nonmedicated children with pure ADHD in comparison with age-matched controls.



The purpose of this study was to objectively compare the eye movement pattern during oral reading in a group of nonmedicated children with pure ADHD and an age-matched control group.



Forty-one children, 21 children with pure ADHD (9.3 ± 2.2 years, 15 boys) and 20 control children (9.3 ± 2.5 years, 10 boys), orally read a standardized text according to their age while the eye movement pattern was objectively recorded using the Visagraph Eye Movement recording system.



The Bayesian statistical analyses revealed that children with ADHD exhibited a significantly higher number of fixations (Bayes factor 10 [BF10] = 3.39), regressions (BF10 = 9.97), saccades in return sweeps (BF10 = 4.63), and anomalies of fixations and regressions (BF10 = 3.66) compared with controls. In addition, children with ADHD significantly showed longer reading times (BF10 = 31.29), as well as lower reading rate (BF10 = 156.74) and grade-level equivalent (BF10 = 168.24) in comparison with controls.



Our data showed that the nonmedicated children with pure ADHD have an altered eye movement pattern during oral reading when compared with controls, which cannot be attributable to any comorbid condition. The present outcomes may help to understand the link between ADHD and reading performance and design the most pertinent strategies to enhance the reading skills of this population.


Vision therapy is well worth the response, time and effort. Our Son had a hard time focusing and writing neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time if previously took. His abilities to focus improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent, we wanted learning to be fun for our Son, and vision therapy made this possible.

Amanda T.

Vision Therapy is well worth the expense, time and effort. Our son had a hard time focusing handwriting neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time it previously took his abilities to focus and improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent you wanted learning to be fun for our son and vision therapy made this possible.

Alexa H.

Vision Therapy has given or son the tools he needs to be able to scan and read the written word more effectively and efficiently.

He love working with John and these working sessions give him the motivation to gladly work on his homework assignments.

It amazed us to see the difference in the tracking of his eyes and along a line of it's from the beginning to the end of the treatment.

Dr. McBryar , Kristen and John  are all marvelous and we would recommend them to anyone I only wish that we would have found them sooner!

Charlotte M.

Prior to coming to the institute for vision development my son complained of daily headaches. Therapy has eliminated his headaches completely. I love knowing my son is able to learn pain-free for the rest of his life because of the work that has been done over just a few weeks in this office. He he absolutely loved coming that didn't even feel like going to a doctor or therapy. We are grateful for the relief he was able to find by coming here.

Thank you!

Olivia C.

Seems much less frustrated with life

Reads non-stop and fast

Spelling abilities have been hugely improved

Seems much more confident

Thank You!!!

Kelly O.

When we first came to the practice, my son did not have huge issues, but lots of small ones- trouble with reading, sports (hitting the baseball consistently), coordination, etc- that were not easily detectable,but when put together presented issues. The staff here were all very professional and loving towards him. While I was concerned in the reading, my son was concerned with the athletic side. Seeing improvement night off the bat gave him confidence that i have nor seen in him and made him want to not only Come to therapy, but also made him want to work hard. He has surpassed his grade level and above in reading and hit his first home run this year! Thank you!!!

Alice M.
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