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Pérez-Rico, Consuelo; García-Romo, Esperanza; Gros-Otero, Juan; Roldán-Díaz, Isabel; Arévalo-Serrano, Juan; Germain, Francisco; Blanco, Román

Evaluation of Visual Function and Retinal Structure in Adult Amblyopes

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To evaluate visual function and its relationship to structure in adult amblyopic subjects.



This observational, cross-sectional study included 24 adult amblyopes and 19 healthy subjects. The amblyopes were separated into three groups: anisometropic amblyopes (n = 15), strabismic amblyopes (n = 5), and strabismic amblyopes with anisometropia (n = 4). The relationships of the multifocal visual evoked potential (VEP) results with the clinical findings and psychophysical (Humphrey visual field) and structural (spectral domain optical coherence tomography) diagnostic test data were then investigated.



Significant differences in the multifocal VEP amplitude responses (abnormal cluster defects), combining the interocular and monocular probability analysis, were observed between the anisometropic amblyopic (80%) and nonamblyopic eyes (13.3%) (p < 0.001), whereas in strabismic amblyopia, such defects were found in 100% of the amblyopic and nonamblyopic eyes. Delayed multifocal VEP interocular and monocular latencies were seen in 66.6 and 26.6% of the anisometropic amblyopic and nonamblyopic eyes, with no significant differences between eyes (p = 0.065). Likewise, latency delays were found in 40% of both strabismic amblyopic and nonamblyopic eyes. Multifocal VEP latency showed significant differences between anisometropic and strabismic amblyopic eyes (p = 0.036). Significant agreement was found between the Humphrey visual field and the multifocal VEP visual field defects in the central area of the visual field (p = 0.033). The average retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, foveal and macular thickness, and macular volume, as measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography, did not show any significant differences between the amblyopic and nonamblyopic eyes and the control group.



Multifocal VEP amplitudes and latencies were significantly affected in amblyopic eyes and, to a lesser extent, in nonamblyopic eyes. Multifocal VEP response latencies were more delayed in anisometropic eyes than in strabismic eyes, suggesting that anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia may represent different neural abnormalities.


Vision therapy is well worth the response, time and effort. Our Son had a hard time focusing and writing neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time if previously took. His abilities to focus improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent, we wanted learning to be fun for our Son, and vision therapy made this possible.

Amanda T.

Vision Therapy is well worth the expense, time and effort. Our son had a hard time focusing handwriting neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time it previously took his abilities to focus and improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent you wanted learning to be fun for our son and vision therapy made this possible.

Alexa H.

Vision Therapy has given or son the tools he needs to be able to scan and read the written word more effectively and efficiently.

He love working with John and these working sessions give him the motivation to gladly work on his homework assignments.

It amazed us to see the difference in the tracking of his eyes and along a line of it's from the beginning to the end of the treatment.

Dr. McBryar , Kristen and John  are all marvelous and we would recommend them to anyone I only wish that we would have found them sooner!

Charlotte M.

Prior to coming to the institute for vision development my son complained of daily headaches. Therapy has eliminated his headaches completely. I love knowing my son is able to learn pain-free for the rest of his life because of the work that has been done over just a few weeks in this office. He he absolutely loved coming that didn't even feel like going to a doctor or therapy. We are grateful for the relief he was able to find by coming here.

Thank you!

Olivia C.

Seems much less frustrated with life

Reads non-stop and fast

Spelling abilities have been hugely improved

Seems much more confident

Thank You!!!

Kelly O.

When we first came to the practice, my son did not have huge issues, but lots of small ones- trouble with reading, sports (hitting the baseball consistently), coordination, etc- that were not easily detectable,but when put together presented issues. The staff here were all very professional and loving towards him. While I was concerned in the reading, my son was concerned with the athletic side. Seeing improvement night off the bat gave him confidence that i have nor seen in him and made him want to not only Come to therapy, but also made him want to work hard. He has surpassed his grade level and above in reading and hit his first home run this year! Thank you!!!

Alice M.
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