Authors
M W Rouse, E Borsting, L Hyman, M Hussein, S A Cotter, M Flynn, M Scheiman, M Gallaway, P N De Land

Frequency of convergence insufficiency among fifth and sixth graders. The Convergence Insufficiency and Reading Study (CIRS) group

publication date
1999 Sep
Category
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Abstract/Introduction

Purpose: To estimate the frequency of convergence insufficiency (CI) and its related clinical characteristics among 9- to 13-year-old children.

Methods: Fifth and sixth graders were screened in school settings at three different study sites. Eligible children with 20/30 or better visual acuity, minimal refractive error, no strabismus, and exophoria at near were evaluated according to a standardized protocol to determine the presence and severity of CI. These children were classified according to the presence and number of the following clinical signs: (1) exophoria at near > or =4delta than far, (2) insufficient fusional convergence, and (3) receded nearpoint of convergence. Also, children were classified as accommodative insufficient (AI) if they failed Hofstetter's minimum amplitude formula or had greater than a + 1.00 D lag on Monocular Estimate Method retinoscopy.


Conclusion/Results

Results: Of 684 children screened, 468 (68%) were eligible for further evaluation. Of these, 453 had complete data on CI measurements and were classified as: no CI (nonexophoric at near or exophoric at near and < 4delta difference between near and far) (78.6%); low suspect CI (exophoric at near and one clinical sign: exophoria at near > or =4delta than far) (8.4%); high suspect CI (exophoric at near and two clinical signs) (8.8%); and definite CI (exophoric at near and three clinical signs) (4.2%). CI status varied according to ethnicity and study site (p < 0.0005), but not gender. The frequency of AI increased with the number of CI-related signs. For CI children with three signs, 78.9% were classified as also having AI.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that CI (defined as high suspect and definite) is frequent (13%) among fifth and sixth grade children. In addition, there is a high percentage of CI children with an associated AI.


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Also, he was better at listening. As a parent, we wanted learning to be fun for our Son, and vision therapy made this possible.


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Vision Therapy is well worth the expense, time and effort. Our son had a hard time focusing handwriting neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time it previously took his abilities to focus and improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent you wanted learning to be fun for our son and vision therapy made this possible.


Alexa H.

Vision Therapy has given or son the tools he needs to be able to scan and read the written word more effectively and efficiently.

He love working with John and these working sessions give him the motivation to gladly work on his homework assignments.

It amazed us to see the difference in the tracking of his eyes and along a line of it's from the beginning to the end of the treatment.

Dr. McBryar , Kristen and John  are all marvelous and we would recommend them to anyone I only wish that we would have found them sooner!


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Prior to coming to the institute for vision development my son complained of daily headaches. Therapy has eliminated his headaches completely. I love knowing my son is able to learn pain-free for the rest of his life because of the work that has been done over just a few weeks in this office. He he absolutely loved coming that didn't even feel like going to a doctor or therapy. We are grateful for the relief he was able to find by coming here.

Thank you!


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Seems much less frustrated with life

Reads non-stop and fast

Spelling abilities have been hugely improved

Seems much more confident

Thank You!!!


Kelly O.

When we first came to the practice, my son did not have huge issues, but lots of small ones- trouble with reading, sports (hitting the baseball consistently), coordination, etc- that were not easily detectable,but when put together presented issues. The staff here were all very professional and loving towards him. While I was concerned in the reading, my son was concerned with the athletic side. Seeing improvement night off the bat gave him confidence that i have nor seen in him and made him want to not only Come to therapy, but also made him want to work hard. He has surpassed his grade level and above in reading and hit his first home run this year! Thank you!!!


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