Authors
SHANKAR, SUNITA PhD; EVANS, MARY ANN PhD, C Psych; BOBIER, WILLIAM R. OD, PhD, FAAO

Hyperopia and Emergent Literacy of Young Children: Pilot Study

publication date
May 10, 2007
Category
see more

Abstract/Introduction

Purpose

To compare emergent literacy skills in uncorrected hyperopic and emmetropic children.

 

Methods

“Hyperopes” (≥2.00 D sphere along the most hyperopic meridian; n = 13; aged 67 ± 13 mo) and “emmetropes” (≤1.50 D sphere along the most hyperopic meridian; n = 19; aged 58 ± 12 mo) were tested for visual acuity (VA) and assessed for their emergent literacy skills [three standard tests (letter/word reading skills, receptive vocabulary and phonological awareness) and an experimental test of emergent orthography]. Parents completed a survey of family demographics, health/developmental concerns and home literacy experiences. Visual motor and visual perceptual skills tests were used to assess any visual cognitive differences.


Conclusion/Results

Results

There were no differences in single letter VA for hyperopes and emmetropes and crowded letters for the right eye. Crowding effects were significantly greater in the left eye for hyperopes (t (30) = −2.74, p = 0.01), with two of the hyperopes showing abnormal crowding. Hyperopes lagged behind emmetropes in letter and word recognition ability (Mann-Whitney U = 72, p = 0.049), receptive vocabulary (F(1,30) = 9.64, p = 0.004), and emergent orthography (F(1,29) = 5.43, p = 0.03). The groups did not differ in phonological awareness skills (F(1,29) = 0.39, p = 0.54). No statistically significant differences between the two groups were found for visual motor or visual perceptual skills, age, and some family variables known to contribute to emergent literacy skills.

 

Conclusions

In this pilot study, uncorrected hyperopic children, ages 4 to 7 years, show reduced performance on tests of letter and word recognition, receptive vocabulary, and emergent orthography and crowded VA, despite no difference in phonological awareness skills, visual cognitive skills, and other family variables known to affect the acquisition of literacy skills. The relationship between hyperopia and the poorer progress in emergent literacy is complex, and it is not clear if the relationship is causal, and whether the hyperopes will catch up to the emmetropes with time.


Testimonials


  • Vision therapy is well worth the response, time and effort. Our Son had a hard time focusing and writing neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time if previously took. His abilities to focus improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

    Also, he was better at listening. As a parent, we wanted learning to be fun for our Son, and vision therapy made this possible.


    Amanda T.

  • Vision Therapy is well worth the expense, time and effort. Our son had a hard time focusing handwriting neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time it previously took his abilities to focus and improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

    Also, he was better at listening. As a parent you wanted learning to be fun for our son and vision therapy made this possible.


    Alexa H.

  • Vision Therapy has given or son the tools he needs to be able to scan and read the written word more effectively and efficiently.

    He love working with John and these working sessions give him the motivation to gladly work on his homework assignments.

    It amazed us to see the difference in the tracking of his eyes and along a line of it's from the beginning to the end of the treatment.

    Dr. McBryar , Kristen and John  are all marvelous and we would recommend them to anyone I only wish that we would have found them sooner!


    Charlotte M.

  • Prior to coming to the institute for vision development my son complained of daily headaches. Therapy has eliminated his headaches completely. I love knowing my son is able to learn pain-free for the rest of his life because of the work that has been done over just a few weeks in this office. He he absolutely loved coming that didn't even feel like going to a doctor or therapy. We are grateful for the relief he was able to find by coming here.

    Thank you!


    Olivia C.

  • Seems much less frustrated with life

    Reads non-stop and fast

    Spelling abilities have been hugely improved

    Seems much more confident

    Thank You!!!


    Kelly O.

Blog

group-of-small-nursery-school-children-with-teache-W2UF5RU

Vision Among Us

One of the challenges with visual impairments and visual deficits is that it's difficult to detect them just by looking […]

Read More
frustrated-millennial-businessman-having-strong-headache-tired-from-laptop-work

Vision Therapy for Neurological Conditions

Each year an estimated 1.5 million Americans sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI). According to the Neuro Optometric Rehabilitation Association, […]

Read More
DSC_2077

Vision Therapy for Adults

Adults generally accept changes in themselves as part of aging, and think that there's nothing they can do about it. […]

Read More
see all blogs

Contact Us To Amplify Your EyeCare

Working Hours

Monday - Thursday
8:00 am - 5:15pm
friday-sunday
Closed
Location
1043 Executive Drive Suite #101 Hixson, TN 37343
Website Accessibility Policy
Safety protocols page
phone-handsetarrow-uparrow-right linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram