Irene H Ludwig, Susan P Imberman, Hilary W Thompson, Marshall M Parks

Intermittent exotropia: comparison of treatments

publication date
see more


Purpose: To identify the best treatment option for intermittent exotropia.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of the progress of 150 treated intermittent exotropia patients was performed. Treatment forms considered are: (i) surgery combined with orthoptic/occlusion therapy; (ii) surgery; (iii) orthoptic/occlusion therapy; and (iv) observation. Pearson's chi(2)-analysis of association of therapy form with success was performed. Reduction of exodeviation in prism dioptres between groups and subgroups were compared at 6 months, 1, 2 and 5 years follow up and the "within group" variations were compared. Exodeviation reduction in prism dioptres per millimetre of horizontal rectus surgery performed in the "surgery with orthoptic/occlusion therapy" and "surgery only" groups were compared.


Results: Chi(2)-analysis revealed a significantly highest (P < 0.001) association with success in the "surgery with orthoptic/occlusion therapy" group at follow up. ANOVA analysis revealed that surgery with orthoptic/occlusion therapy resulted significantly (P < 0.001) in the highest reduction of exodeviation as compared with the other three treatment modalities at each follow up. Reduction of exodeviation in prism dioptres per millimetre of horizontal rectus surgery performed was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the surgery with orthoptic/occlusion therapy group as compared with surgery only at all follow ups. Chi(2)-test revealed no significant association of success with the magnitude of initial exodeviation (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: Surgery with preoperative orthoptic/occlusion therapy had the highest success rates. Surgery with orthoptic/occlusion therapy was more effective in reducing exodeviation (prism dioptres per millimetre of horizontal rectus surgery), compared with surgery only.


  • Vision therapy is well worth the response, time and effort. Our Son had a hard time focusing and writing neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time if previously took. His abilities to focus improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

    Also, he was better at listening. As a parent, we wanted learning to be fun for our Son, and vision therapy made this possible.

    Amanda T.

  • Vision Therapy is well worth the expense, time and effort. Our son had a hard time focusing handwriting neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time it previously took his abilities to focus and improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

    Also, he was better at listening. As a parent you wanted learning to be fun for our son and vision therapy made this possible.

    Alexa H.

  • Vision Therapy has given or son the tools he needs to be able to scan and read the written word more effectively and efficiently.

    He love working with John and these working sessions give him the motivation to gladly work on his homework assignments.

    It amazed us to see the difference in the tracking of his eyes and along a line of it's from the beginning to the end of the treatment.

    Dr. McBryar , Kristen and John  are all marvelous and we would recommend them to anyone I only wish that we would have found them sooner!

    Charlotte M.

  • Prior to coming to the institute for vision development my son complained of daily headaches. Therapy has eliminated his headaches completely. I love knowing my son is able to learn pain-free for the rest of his life because of the work that has been done over just a few weeks in this office. He he absolutely loved coming that didn't even feel like going to a doctor or therapy. We are grateful for the relief he was able to find by coming here.

    Thank you!

    Olivia C.

  • Seems much less frustrated with life

    Reads non-stop and fast

    Spelling abilities have been hugely improved

    Seems much more confident

    Thank You!!!

    Kelly O.



Vision Among Us

One of the challenges with visual impairments and visual deficits is that it's difficult to detect them just by looking […]

Read More

Vision Therapy for Neurological Conditions

Each year an estimated 1.5 million Americans sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI). According to the Neuro Optometric Rehabilitation Association, […]

Read More

Vision Therapy for Adults

Adults generally accept changes in themselves as part of aging, and think that there's nothing they can do about it. […]

Read More
see all blogs

Contact Us To Amplify Your EyeCare

Working Hours

Monday - Thursday
8:00 am - 5:15pm
1043 Executive Drive Suite #101 Hixson, TN 37343
Website Accessibility Policy
Safety protocols page
phone-handsetarrow-uparrow-right linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram