Authors
James E Sheedy, John N Hayes, Jon Engle

Is all asthenopia the same?

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Abstract/Introduction

Purpose: Any of several conditions can cause asthenopia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the particular sensations or their location vary dependent on the symptom-inducing condition.

Methods: Twenty subjects with good vision performed eight reading tasks in random order during different conditions. Each condition used different stimuli to induce asthenopia. The eight conditions were mixed astigmatism, close viewing distance, upward gaze, dry eyes, lens flipper, small font, glare, and flickering light. Subjects were asked to read until attaining a level of discomfort self-defined as "barely tolerable." After each task, subjects rated the magnitude of several symptom descriptors (burning, ache, strain, irritation, tearing, blurred vision, double vision, dryness, and headache) and their location.


Conclusion/Results

Results: Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to determine that all of the individual symptom sensation measures (except blur) were significantly related (p values ranged from 0.003 to <0.0001) to the inducing condition. Principal factor analysis with orthogonal varimax rotation was used to test symptom by condition relationships and determined two latent factors, designated external and internal symptom factors (ESF and ISF), that related symptoms to inducing condition. The ESF pattern comprises burning, irritation, tearing, and dryness located in the front and bottom of the eye. ESF is caused by holding the eyelid open, glare, up gaze, small font, and flickering. ESF seems highly related to dry-eye symptoms. The ISF pattern comprises ache, strain, and headache located behind the eyes. ISF is caused by the close viewing distance, lens flipper, and mixed astigmatism conditions and is likely related to accommodative and vergence stress.

Conclusions: Symptom descriptors and locations were able to distinguish discomfort on the basis of causative condition. Results support two different symptom constellations and, hence, at least two different afferent pathways for symptoms of asthenopia.


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Also, he was better at listening. As a parent, we wanted learning to be fun for our Son, and vision therapy made this possible.


Amanda T.

Vision Therapy is well worth the expense, time and effort. Our son had a hard time focusing handwriting neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time it previously took his abilities to focus and improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent you wanted learning to be fun for our son and vision therapy made this possible.


Alexa H.

Vision Therapy has given or son the tools he needs to be able to scan and read the written word more effectively and efficiently.

He love working with John and these working sessions give him the motivation to gladly work on his homework assignments.

It amazed us to see the difference in the tracking of his eyes and along a line of it's from the beginning to the end of the treatment.

Dr. McBryar , Kristen and John  are all marvelous and we would recommend them to anyone I only wish that we would have found them sooner!


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Prior to coming to the institute for vision development my son complained of daily headaches. Therapy has eliminated his headaches completely. I love knowing my son is able to learn pain-free for the rest of his life because of the work that has been done over just a few weeks in this office. He he absolutely loved coming that didn't even feel like going to a doctor or therapy. We are grateful for the relief he was able to find by coming here.

Thank you!


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Seems much less frustrated with life

Reads non-stop and fast

Spelling abilities have been hugely improved

Seems much more confident

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Kelly O.

When we first came to the practice, my son did not have huge issues, but lots of small ones- trouble with reading, sports (hitting the baseball consistently), coordination, etc- that were not easily detectable,but when put together presented issues. The staff here were all very professional and loving towards him. While I was concerned in the reading, my son was concerned with the athletic side. Seeing improvement night off the bat gave him confidence that i have nor seen in him and made him want to not only Come to therapy, but also made him want to work hard. He has surpassed his grade level and above in reading and hit his first home run this year! Thank you!!!


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