Authors
RUTSTEIN, ROBERT P. OD, MS, FAAO; CORLISS, DAVID A. OD, PhD

Long-Term Changes in Visual Acuity and Refractive Error in Amblyopes

publication date
February 19, 2004
Category
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Abstract/Introduction

Purpose

To report long-term changes in visual acuity and refractive error for strabismic, anisometropic, and isoametropic amblyopes.

 

Methods

Records of patients with strabismic amblyopia, anisometropic amblyopia, and isoametropic amblyopia who were treated from 1983 to 1993 were reviewed. Excluded were patients having ocular or neurological diseases, developmental delay, and follow-up <4 years after treatment cessation. Data included best-correctable visual acuity and spherical equivalent refractive error of the amblyopic and the nonamblyopic eye at pretreatment, posttreatment, and long-term follow-up.


Conclusion/Results

Results

Records for 61 patients met the inclusion criteria. For strabismic amblyopia (n = 22), mean visual acuity in amblyopic and nonamblyopic eyes improved 0.36 and 0.05 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units after a mean treatment time of 1 year. At long-term follow-up (mean = 9.3 years after treatment), visual acuity in the amblyopic eye regressed 0.09 logMAR and visual acuity in the nonamblyopic eye improved 0.10 logMAR units. For anisometropic amblyopia (n = 26), mean visual acuity in amblyopic and nonamblyopic eyes improved 0.30 and 0.02 logMAR units, respectively, after a mean treatment period of 1.1 year. At the long-term follow-up visit (mean = 7.1 years after treatment), visual acuity in the amblyopic eye regressed 0.09 logMAR unit and in the nonamblyopic eye improved 0.03 logMAR unit. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed no significant effect of type of amblyopia on visual acuity of the amblyopic eye and a significant effect of visit due to treatment but not regression. The changes in visual acuity in the nonamblyopic eye from the pretreatment to the follow-up visit were significant and interacted with type, the changes being larger in strabismic amblyopia. For strabismic amblyopia, the mean refractive error in amblyopic and nonamblyopic eyes changed from +2.15 D and +1.85 D, respectively, initially to +0.45 D and +0.58 D, respectively, at the follow-up visit. For anisometropic amblyopia, the mean refractive error in amblyopic and nonamblyopic eyes changed from +1.04 D and +0.12 D, respectively, initially to +0.23 D and −0.94 D, respectively, at the follow-up visit. The effect of visit on amblyopic and nonamblyopic refractive errors was significant. For isoametropic amblyopia (n = 13), visual acuity in both right and left eyes initially was 0.39 logMAR unit and improved to 0.14 logMAR unit in each eye after a mean follow-up of 8.9 years. Refractive error in the right and the left eyes changed from −1.22 D and −1.14 D, respectively, to −2.68 D and −2.56 D, respectively, at follow-up. These differences were all significant.

 

Conclusions

After treatment and with long-term follow up, visual acuity regresses but not significantly in the amblyopic eye in strabismic amblyopia and anisometropic amblyopia. At the same time, visual acuity in the nonamblyopic eye improves slightly. Visual acuity also improves significantly over time in isoametropic amblyopia. The refractive error of both amblyopic and nonamblyopic eyes tends to show a myopic shift regardless of the type of amblyopia.


Testimonials


Vision therapy is well worth the response, time and effort. Our Son had a hard time focusing and writing neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time if previously took. His abilities to focus improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent, we wanted learning to be fun for our Son, and vision therapy made this possible.


Amanda T.

Vision Therapy is well worth the expense, time and effort. Our son had a hard time focusing handwriting neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time it previously took his abilities to focus and improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent you wanted learning to be fun for our son and vision therapy made this possible.


Alexa H.

Vision Therapy has given or son the tools he needs to be able to scan and read the written word more effectively and efficiently.

He love working with John and these working sessions give him the motivation to gladly work on his homework assignments.

It amazed us to see the difference in the tracking of his eyes and along a line of it's from the beginning to the end of the treatment.

Dr. McBryar , Kristen and John  are all marvelous and we would recommend them to anyone I only wish that we would have found them sooner!


Charlotte M.

Prior to coming to the institute for vision development my son complained of daily headaches. Therapy has eliminated his headaches completely. I love knowing my son is able to learn pain-free for the rest of his life because of the work that has been done over just a few weeks in this office. He he absolutely loved coming that didn't even feel like going to a doctor or therapy. We are grateful for the relief he was able to find by coming here.

Thank you!


Olivia C.

Seems much less frustrated with life

Reads non-stop and fast

Spelling abilities have been hugely improved

Seems much more confident

Thank You!!!


Kelly O.

When we first came to the practice, my son did not have huge issues, but lots of small ones- trouble with reading, sports (hitting the baseball consistently), coordination, etc- that were not easily detectable,but when put together presented issues. The staff here were all very professional and loving towards him. While I was concerned in the reading, my son was concerned with the athletic side. Seeing improvement night off the bat gave him confidence that i have nor seen in him and made him want to not only Come to therapy, but also made him want to work hard. He has surpassed his grade level and above in reading and hit his first home run this year! Thank you!!!


Alice M.
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