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Borsting, Eric; Chase, Chris; Tosha, Chinatsu; Ridder, William H. III

Longitudinal Study of Visual Discomfort Symptoms in College Students

publication date
April 7, 2008
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To determine the variation of visual discomfort symptom reporting in a group of college students over a 1 year period.



Subjects were screened for visual acuity and uncorrected refractive error before participating in the study. A survey of visual discomfort developed by Conlon et al., Vis Cogn 1999;6:637–666, and the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) were administered to a group of 23 college students twice with approximately 1 year between administrations. All subjects also completed two clinical assessments of accommodation and vergence.



The mean time between administrations of the symptom surveys was 13 months. There was no clinically significant mean difference between the first and second administration of both visual discomfort surveys. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.82 for the Conlon et al., Vis Cogn 1999;6:637–666 survey and 0.85 for the CISS. The 95% limits of agreement for the Conlon et al., Vis Cogn 1999;6:637–666 survey was −18.44, 17.92 and for the CISS was −14.36, 13.36. The intraclass correlation coefficient values for the optometric tests ranged from 0.38 to 0.83.



Visual discomfort symptoms were found to be stable in the majority of young college students over a 1 year period. However, a minority of students showed large variability between the two administrations of the surveys.


Vision therapy is well worth the response, time and effort. Our Son had a hard time focusing and writing neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time if previously took. His abilities to focus improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent, we wanted learning to be fun for our Son, and vision therapy made this possible.

Amanda T.

Vision Therapy is well worth the expense, time and effort. Our son had a hard time focusing handwriting neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time it previously took his abilities to focus and improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent you wanted learning to be fun for our son and vision therapy made this possible.

Alexa H.

Vision Therapy has given or son the tools he needs to be able to scan and read the written word more effectively and efficiently.

He love working with John and these working sessions give him the motivation to gladly work on his homework assignments.

It amazed us to see the difference in the tracking of his eyes and along a line of it's from the beginning to the end of the treatment.

Dr. McBryar , Kristen and John  are all marvelous and we would recommend them to anyone I only wish that we would have found them sooner!

Charlotte M.

Prior to coming to the institute for vision development my son complained of daily headaches. Therapy has eliminated his headaches completely. I love knowing my son is able to learn pain-free for the rest of his life because of the work that has been done over just a few weeks in this office. He he absolutely loved coming that didn't even feel like going to a doctor or therapy. We are grateful for the relief he was able to find by coming here.

Thank you!

Olivia C.

Seems much less frustrated with life

Reads non-stop and fast

Spelling abilities have been hugely improved

Seems much more confident

Thank You!!!

Kelly O.

When we first came to the practice, my son did not have huge issues, but lots of small ones- trouble with reading, sports (hitting the baseball consistently), coordination, etc- that were not easily detectable,but when put together presented issues. The staff here were all very professional and loving towards him. While I was concerned in the reading, my son was concerned with the athletic side. Seeing improvement night off the bat gave him confidence that i have nor seen in him and made him want to not only Come to therapy, but also made him want to work hard. He has surpassed his grade level and above in reading and hit his first home run this year! Thank you!!!

Alice M.
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