Authors
SASS, SARAH M. BA; LEGGE, GORDON E. PhD; LEE, HYE-WON PhD

Low-Vision Reading Speed: Influences of Linguistic Inference and Aging

publication date
November 28, 2005
Category
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Abstract/Introduction

Purpose. 

Reading is a dynamic task involving both linguistic and visual analysis. In this study, we asked how two types of linguistic information—characters used in segmenting words from one another, and sentence context–differ in their usefulness for people with normal and low vision. Given evidence for age-related differences in some forms of cognitive processing, we also investigated the effect of age.

 

Methods

There were four groups of 10 participants: vision status (normal, low) crossed with age (young, <35 years; old, >65 years). Reading speeds were compared for regularly spaced text and text in which the spaces were removed, a manipulation intended to eliminate local cues for text segmentation and force attention to clusters of letters or whole words. We also evaluated the effect of sentence context by comparing reading speeds for regular sentences and sentences in which word order was scrambled.


Conclusion/Results

Results

Removal of spaces had a greater impact on low vision than normal vision, reducing average speeds to 45% and 66% of speeds for regularly spaced text, respectively. We interpret this to mean that people with low vision have less access to spatially distributed linguistic regularities of text such as prefixes, suffixes, or word length. Removal of sentence context through scrambling had a greater impact on normal vision than low vision, reducing mean reading speed to 53% and 66%, respectively. Finally, comparison of our young and old readers showed no major differences in the use of sentence context or in the impact of removing spaces between words.

 

Conclusions

People with low vision appear to rely more on spacing information in sentences, whereas people with normal vision appear to make better use of sentence context, irrespective of age.


Testimonials


Vision therapy is well worth the response, time and effort. Our Son had a hard time focusing and writing neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time if previously took. His abilities to focus improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent, we wanted learning to be fun for our Son, and vision therapy made this possible.


Amanda T.

Vision Therapy is well worth the expense, time and effort. Our son had a hard time focusing handwriting neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time it previously took his abilities to focus and improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent you wanted learning to be fun for our son and vision therapy made this possible.


Alexa H.

Vision Therapy has given or son the tools he needs to be able to scan and read the written word more effectively and efficiently.

He love working with John and these working sessions give him the motivation to gladly work on his homework assignments.

It amazed us to see the difference in the tracking of his eyes and along a line of it's from the beginning to the end of the treatment.

Dr. McBryar , Kristen and John  are all marvelous and we would recommend them to anyone I only wish that we would have found them sooner!


Charlotte M.

Prior to coming to the institute for vision development my son complained of daily headaches. Therapy has eliminated his headaches completely. I love knowing my son is able to learn pain-free for the rest of his life because of the work that has been done over just a few weeks in this office. He he absolutely loved coming that didn't even feel like going to a doctor or therapy. We are grateful for the relief he was able to find by coming here.

Thank you!


Olivia C.

Seems much less frustrated with life

Reads non-stop and fast

Spelling abilities have been hugely improved

Seems much more confident

Thank You!!!


Kelly O.

When we first came to the practice, my son did not have huge issues, but lots of small ones- trouble with reading, sports (hitting the baseball consistently), coordination, etc- that were not easily detectable,but when put together presented issues. The staff here were all very professional and loving towards him. While I was concerned in the reading, my son was concerned with the athletic side. Seeing improvement night off the bat gave him confidence that i have nor seen in him and made him want to not only Come to therapy, but also made him want to work hard. He has surpassed his grade level and above in reading and hit his first home run this year! Thank you!!!


Alice M.
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