Authors
Chung, Susana T. L. MScOptom, PhD, FAAO; Jarvis, Samuel H. OD; Woo, Stanley Y. OD, MS, FAAO; Hanson, Kara OD, FAAO; Jose, Randall T. OD, FAAO

Reading Speed Does Not Benefit from Increased Line Spacing in AMD Patients

publication date
February 28, 2008
Category
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Abstract/Introduction

Purpose

Crowding, the adverse spatial interaction due to the proximity of adjacent targets, has been suggested as an explanation for slow reading in peripheral vision. Previously, we showed that increased line spacing, which presumably reduces crowding between adjacent lines of text, improved reading speed in the normal periphery (Chung, Optom Vis Sci 2004;81:525–35). The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not individuals with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) would benefit from increased line spacing for reading.

 

Methods

Experiment 1: Eight subjects with AMD read aloud 100-word passages rendered at five line spacings: the standard single spacing, 1.5×, 2×, 3×, and 4× the standard spacing. Print sizes were 1× and 2× of the critical print size. Reading time and number of reading errors for each passage were measured to compute the reading speed. Experiment 2: Four subjects with AMD read aloud sequences of six 4-letter words, presented on a computer monitor using the rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm. Target words were presented singly, or flanked above and below by two other words that changed in synchrony with the target word, at various vertical word separations. Print size was 2× the critical print size. Reading speed was calculated based on the RSVP exposure duration that yielded 80% of the words read correctly.


Conclusion/Results

Results

Averaged across subjects, reading speeds for passages were virtually constant for the range of line spacings tested. For sequences of unrelated words, reading speeds were also virtually constant for the range of vertical word separations tested, except at the smallest (standard) separation at which reading speed was lower.

 

Conclusions

Contrary to the previous finding that reading speed improved in normal peripheral vision, increased line spacing in passages, or increased vertical separation between words in RSVP, did not lead to improved reading speed in people with AMD.


Testimonials


Vision therapy is well worth the response, time and effort. Our Son had a hard time focusing and writing neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time if previously took. His abilities to focus improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent, we wanted learning to be fun for our Son, and vision therapy made this possible.


Amanda T.

Vision Therapy is well worth the expense, time and effort. Our son had a hard time focusing handwriting neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time it previously took his abilities to focus and improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent you wanted learning to be fun for our son and vision therapy made this possible.


Alexa H.

Vision Therapy has given or son the tools he needs to be able to scan and read the written word more effectively and efficiently.

He love working with John and these working sessions give him the motivation to gladly work on his homework assignments.

It amazed us to see the difference in the tracking of his eyes and along a line of it's from the beginning to the end of the treatment.

Dr. McBryar , Kristen and John  are all marvelous and we would recommend them to anyone I only wish that we would have found them sooner!


Charlotte M.

Prior to coming to the institute for vision development my son complained of daily headaches. Therapy has eliminated his headaches completely. I love knowing my son is able to learn pain-free for the rest of his life because of the work that has been done over just a few weeks in this office. He he absolutely loved coming that didn't even feel like going to a doctor or therapy. We are grateful for the relief he was able to find by coming here.

Thank you!


Olivia C.

Seems much less frustrated with life

Reads non-stop and fast

Spelling abilities have been hugely improved

Seems much more confident

Thank You!!!


Kelly O.

When we first came to the practice, my son did not have huge issues, but lots of small ones- trouble with reading, sports (hitting the baseball consistently), coordination, etc- that were not easily detectable,but when put together presented issues. The staff here were all very professional and loving towards him. While I was concerned in the reading, my son was concerned with the athletic side. Seeing improvement night off the bat gave him confidence that i have nor seen in him and made him want to not only Come to therapy, but also made him want to work hard. He has surpassed his grade level and above in reading and hit his first home run this year! Thank you!!!


Alice M.
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