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Authors
Howarth, Peter A. PhD, FAAO; Heron, Gordon PhD, FAAO

Repeated Measures of Horizontal Heterophoria

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Abstract/Introduction

Purpose 

To assess repeatability, horizontal heterophoria measurements were taken from 31 subjects on five occasions, each between 1 and 4 weeks apart.

 

Method 

Distance heterophoria was measured using a Maddox Rod, and near heterophoria was measured using a Maddox Wing. In addition, near measurements were repeated with a +3.00 D lens in front of each eye to place the targets at optical infinity. In each case, the standard deviation of the five values was taken as a metric of the test variability.


Conclusion/Results

Results 

On average, the variability of the Maddox Rod was half of the Maddox Wing, both with and without the lenses.

 

Conclusion 

This consistency suggests that the difference reflects the test conditions rather than optical differences in the target position.


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