Wei Wei Lee, Iqbal Tajunisah, Kanagasundram Sharmilla, Mohammadreza Peyman, Visvaraja Subrayan

Retinal nerve fiber layer structure abnormalities in schizophrenia and its relationship to disease state: evidence from optical coherence tomography

publication date
see more


Purpose: We determined structural retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) changes in schizophrenia patients and established if the structural changes were related to the duration of the illness using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).

Methods: We recruited a total of 30 schizophrenic patients and 30 age-matched controls in the study. The schizophrenic patients were subdivided further to acute (n = 5), chronic (n = 13), and long-term chronic (n = 12) subgroups depending on their duration of illness. Using SD-OCT, the peripapillary RNFL thickness, macula thickness, and macula volume measurements of schizophrenic patients and the control subjects were measured and compared at each location.


Results: Schizophrenic patients showed a statistically significant reduction in overall peripapillary RNFL thickness (cases, 94.70 ± 9.88 μm; controls, 103.53 ± 6.53 μm; P < 0.001), macula thickness (cases, 269.26 ± 12.59 μm; controls, 284.83 ± 9.76 μm; P < 0.001), and macula volume (cases, 9.61 ± 0.45 mm(3); controls, 10.17 ± 0.35 μm; P < 0.001). Chronic and long-term chronic schizophrenic patients were found to have significant peripapillary RNFL thinning, macula thinning, and reduction of macula volume when compared to controls (P < 0.001). There also was a statistically significant reverse correlation (P < 0.05) of peripapillary RNFL thickness (r = -0.36), macula thickness (r = -0.38), and macula volume reduction (r = -0.36) with the duration of schizophrenic illness.

Conclusions: These results indicate that RNFL and macula thickness, as well as macula volume measurements are reduced in schizophrenic patients. The degree of thinning and reduction was more significant in the chronic phase of the disease and correlated with the duration of illness. These findings demonstrate that SD-OCT can be a useful tool for the diagnosis and monitoring the progression of this disease.


  • Vision therapy is well worth the response, time and effort. Our Son had a hard time focusing and writing neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time if previously took. His abilities to focus improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

    Also, he was better at listening. As a parent, we wanted learning to be fun for our Son, and vision therapy made this possible.

    Amanda T.

  • Vision Therapy is well worth the expense, time and effort. Our son had a hard time focusing handwriting neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time it previously took his abilities to focus and improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

    Also, he was better at listening. As a parent you wanted learning to be fun for our son and vision therapy made this possible.

    Alexa H.

  • Vision Therapy has given or son the tools he needs to be able to scan and read the written word more effectively and efficiently.

    He love working with John and these working sessions give him the motivation to gladly work on his homework assignments.

    It amazed us to see the difference in the tracking of his eyes and along a line of it's from the beginning to the end of the treatment.

    Dr. McBryar , Kristen and John  are all marvelous and we would recommend them to anyone I only wish that we would have found them sooner!

    Charlotte M.

  • Prior to coming to the institute for vision development my son complained of daily headaches. Therapy has eliminated his headaches completely. I love knowing my son is able to learn pain-free for the rest of his life because of the work that has been done over just a few weeks in this office. He he absolutely loved coming that didn't even feel like going to a doctor or therapy. We are grateful for the relief he was able to find by coming here.

    Thank you!

    Olivia C.

  • Seems much less frustrated with life

    Reads non-stop and fast

    Spelling abilities have been hugely improved

    Seems much more confident

    Thank You!!!

    Kelly O.



Vision Among Us

One of the challenges with visual impairments and visual deficits is that it's difficult to detect them just by looking […]

Read More

Vision Therapy for Neurological Conditions

Each year an estimated 1.5 million Americans sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI). According to the Neuro Optometric Rehabilitation Association, […]

Read More

Vision Therapy for Adults

Adults generally accept changes in themselves as part of aging, and think that there's nothing they can do about it. […]

Read More
see all blogs

Contact Us To Amplify Your EyeCare

Working Hours

Monday - Thursday
8:00 am - 5:15pm
1043 Executive Drive Suite #101 Hixson, TN 37343
Website Accessibility Policy
Safety protocols page
phone-handsetarrow-uparrow-right linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram