Authors
Schmid, Katrina L. PhD; Beavis, Stephanie D. MOptom; Wallace, Sophia I. MOptom; Chen, Joy MOptom; Chien, Yi-Tang MOptom; Nguyen, Terry MOptom; Tran, Amy MOptom; Varnas, Saulius R. PhD; Atchison, David A. DSc, PhD, FAAO

The Effect of Vertically Yoked Prisms on Binocular Vision and Accommodation

publication date
February 28, 2019
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Abstract/Introduction

SIGNIFICANCE 

Vertically yoked prisms have been used in treatment of binocular vision dysfunction despite minimal supporting evidence. In people with normal binocular vision, the impact on phorias has been assessed but not the impact on accommodation, accommodation vergence interactions, or the horopter. We found that vertically yoked prisms have minor effects during short-term wear in young adults.

PURPOSE 

The purpose of this study was to determine effects of vertically yoked prisms on accommodative response and several binocular vision tasks.

METHODS 

There were 45 participants aged 18 to 24 years. The 23 myopes wore distance-corrected soft contact lenses. In a random arrangement, each person wore spectacles containing planopower lenses with either 8 Δ base-up, 4 Δ base-up, zero, 4 Δ base-down, and 8 Δ base-down prisms. Before spectacle wear, baseline measurements of near heterophoria, accommodation response, negative and positive relative accommodations, fusional vergence, and Nonius-horopter spatial perception were taken. Measurements were repeated after a 40-minute wear, spectacles were removed, and tests were performed 20 minutes later. On a 22-participant subset, on a separate occasion, measurements of heterophoria, accommodation response, and relative accommodation were made immediately after spectacles were fitted.


Conclusion/Results

RESULTS 

Most changes relative to baseline were not significant. Where effects occurred, these were nearly all associated with prism presence rather than adaptation. There were significant effects on accommodation response, but these seem to be refraction effects produced by pantoscopic tilt–induced power changes rather than perceptual effects altering accommodation. There were statistically significant effects on negative relative accommodation (P < .01), with zero prism giving more negative relative accommodation than 8 Δ base-down prisms. Tendencies were noted for prisms to move horopter limits toward the observer. Effects were small and likely not of clinical relevance.

CONCLUSIONS 

Vertically yoked prisms have minor effects on accommodation and binocular vision, at least during short-term wear in young adults with normal binocular vision.


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Vision therapy is well worth the response, time and effort. Our Son had a hard time focusing and writing neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time if previously took. His abilities to focus improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent, we wanted learning to be fun for our Son, and vision therapy made this possible.


Amanda T.

Vision Therapy is well worth the expense, time and effort. Our son had a hard time focusing handwriting neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time it previously took his abilities to focus and improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent you wanted learning to be fun for our son and vision therapy made this possible.


Alexa H.

Vision Therapy has given or son the tools he needs to be able to scan and read the written word more effectively and efficiently.

He love working with John and these working sessions give him the motivation to gladly work on his homework assignments.

It amazed us to see the difference in the tracking of his eyes and along a line of it's from the beginning to the end of the treatment.

Dr. McBryar , Kristen and John  are all marvelous and we would recommend them to anyone I only wish that we would have found them sooner!


Charlotte M.

Prior to coming to the institute for vision development my son complained of daily headaches. Therapy has eliminated his headaches completely. I love knowing my son is able to learn pain-free for the rest of his life because of the work that has been done over just a few weeks in this office. He he absolutely loved coming that didn't even feel like going to a doctor or therapy. We are grateful for the relief he was able to find by coming here.

Thank you!


Olivia C.

Seems much less frustrated with life

Reads non-stop and fast

Spelling abilities have been hugely improved

Seems much more confident

Thank You!!!


Kelly O.

When we first came to the practice, my son did not have huge issues, but lots of small ones- trouble with reading, sports (hitting the baseball consistently), coordination, etc- that were not easily detectable,but when put together presented issues. The staff here were all very professional and loving towards him. While I was concerned in the reading, my son was concerned with the athletic side. Seeing improvement night off the bat gave him confidence that i have nor seen in him and made him want to not only Come to therapy, but also made him want to work hard. He has surpassed his grade level and above in reading and hit his first home run this year! Thank you!!!


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