Authors
BORSTING, ERIC J. OD, MS, FAAO; ROUSE, MICHAEL W. OD, MS, FAAO; MITCHELL, G. LYNN MS, FAAO; SCHEIMAN, MITCHELL OD, FAAO; COTTER, SUSAN A. OD, FAAO; COOPER, JEFFREY OD, MS, FAAO; KULP, MARJEAN TAYLOR OD, MS, FAAO; LONDON, RICHARD MA, OD, FAAO

Validity and Reliability of the Revised Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey in Children Aged 9 to 18 Years

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Abstract/Introduction

Purpose

To assess the validity and reliability of the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) in children aged 9 to 18 years. The CISS is the primary outcome measure for a pilot study evaluating two different treatments for convergence insufficiency (CI).

 

Methods

Children with CI were given the CISS twice to assess reliability. CISS scores for the first administration were also compared with scores from children with normal binocular vision to assess the validity of the CISS.


Conclusion/Results

Results

Forty-seven children with CI and 56 children with normal binocular vision participated in the study. Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation and 95% limits of agreement for the children with CI. For children with CI, the intraclass correlation was 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.613 to 0.873), and the 95% limits of agreement were −10.2 to +12.1. The mean (±SD) CISS score was 30.8 ± 8.4 for the children with CI and 8.4 ± 6.4 for the children with normal binocular vision. These means were significantly different (p < 0.0001). Good discrimination (sensitivity, 96%; specificity, 88%) was obtained using a score of ≥16.

 

Conclusions

Children with CI showed a significantly higher CISS symptom score than children with normal binocular vision. The results of the study indicate that the CISS is a valid and reliable instrument to use as an outcome measure for children aged 9 to 18 who are enrolled in clinical research concerning CI.


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Also, he was better at listening. As a parent, we wanted learning to be fun for our Son, and vision therapy made this possible.


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Vision Therapy is well worth the expense, time and effort. Our son had a hard time focusing handwriting neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time it previously took his abilities to focus and improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent you wanted learning to be fun for our son and vision therapy made this possible.


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He love working with John and these working sessions give him the motivation to gladly work on his homework assignments.

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Prior to coming to the institute for vision development my son complained of daily headaches. Therapy has eliminated his headaches completely. I love knowing my son is able to learn pain-free for the rest of his life because of the work that has been done over just a few weeks in this office. He he absolutely loved coming that didn't even feel like going to a doctor or therapy. We are grateful for the relief he was able to find by coming here.

Thank you!


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Seems much less frustrated with life

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When we first came to the practice, my son did not have huge issues, but lots of small ones- trouble with reading, sports (hitting the baseball consistently), coordination, etc- that were not easily detectable,but when put together presented issues. The staff here were all very professional and loving towards him. While I was concerned in the reading, my son was concerned with the athletic side. Seeing improvement night off the bat gave him confidence that i have nor seen in him and made him want to not only Come to therapy, but also made him want to work hard. He has surpassed his grade level and above in reading and hit his first home run this year! Thank you!!!


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