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Okumura, Tomohito MSOptom, MEd, FAAO; Miura, Tomoko BA; Nakanishi, Makoto MA; Fukui, Miho MD, PhD3; Toshikawa, Mari MD, PhD; Shimakawa, Shuichi MD, PhD; Wakamiya, Eiji MD, PhD6; Tamai, Hiroshi MD, PhD; Ashida, Akira MD, PhD

Validity of the Wide-range Assessment of Vision-related Essential Skills in Japanese Children with Learning Problems

publication date
November 17, 2019
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Our study revealed that the validity of a new Japanese visual-perceptual test was acceptable. Visual-perceptual abilities are important to activities of daily living; thus, accurate assessment of visual perception is especially important for children with neurodevelopmental disorders and particularly so for those with learning problems.



Visual perception refers to the process by which one receives visual information through sensory impulses and then translates those impulses into meaning based on a previously developed view of the environment. A problem in Japan is the paucity of visual perception tests that use normative data from children who are native Japanese. The Wide-range Assessment of Vision-related Essential Skills (WAVES), which measures visual perception and eye-hand coordination skills and is based on Japanese normative data, was recently published in Japan. The validity of this test has not been comprehensively established.



To investigate the validity of the WAVES, we used the Pearson correlation coefficient to calculate the degrees of association among WAVES scaled and index scores compared with Developmental Test of Visual Perception, Third Edition, scores from 108 elementary school children with symptoms of learning problems. Participants were recruited at Osaka Medical College Learning Disability Center and Sakai Seikeikai Learning Disability Center.



The concurrent validity of the WAVES was supported by moderate correlation (r = 0.67, P < .01) between the total scores for visual perception and eye-hand coordination index from the WAVES and general visual perception index from the Developmental Test of Visual Perception, Third Edition, even though a correlation analysis of subtests found differences between the two tests.



Our results showed that the indices from the two tests measured nearly the same underlying visual-perceptual constructs and indicated that the WAVES had acceptable levels of concurrent validity.


Vision therapy is well worth the response, time and effort. Our Son had a hard time focusing and writing neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time if previously took. His abilities to focus improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent, we wanted learning to be fun for our Son, and vision therapy made this possible.

Amanda T.

Vision Therapy is well worth the expense, time and effort. Our son had a hard time focusing handwriting neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time it previously took his abilities to focus and improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent you wanted learning to be fun for our son and vision therapy made this possible.

Alexa H.

Vision Therapy has given or son the tools he needs to be able to scan and read the written word more effectively and efficiently.

He love working with John and these working sessions give him the motivation to gladly work on his homework assignments.

It amazed us to see the difference in the tracking of his eyes and along a line of it's from the beginning to the end of the treatment.

Dr. McBryar , Kristen and John  are all marvelous and we would recommend them to anyone I only wish that we would have found them sooner!

Charlotte M.

Prior to coming to the institute for vision development my son complained of daily headaches. Therapy has eliminated his headaches completely. I love knowing my son is able to learn pain-free for the rest of his life because of the work that has been done over just a few weeks in this office. He he absolutely loved coming that didn't even feel like going to a doctor or therapy. We are grateful for the relief he was able to find by coming here.

Thank you!

Olivia C.

Seems much less frustrated with life

Reads non-stop and fast

Spelling abilities have been hugely improved

Seems much more confident

Thank You!!!

Kelly O.

When we first came to the practice, my son did not have huge issues, but lots of small ones- trouble with reading, sports (hitting the baseball consistently), coordination, etc- that were not easily detectable,but when put together presented issues. The staff here were all very professional and loving towards him. While I was concerned in the reading, my son was concerned with the athletic side. Seeing improvement night off the bat gave him confidence that i have nor seen in him and made him want to not only Come to therapy, but also made him want to work hard. He has surpassed his grade level and above in reading and hit his first home run this year! Thank you!!!

Alice M.
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