This study reports prevalence data combined independently for accommodative dysfunction, convergence insufficiency, visual field loss, and visual acuity loss in patients with traumatic brain injury in the absence of eye injury.
The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence rates of accommodative dysfunction, convergence insufficiency, visual field loss, and visual acuity loss in TBI patients without concomitant eye injury.
The data sources used in this study were PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library.
STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS
Publications reporting the prevalence of diagnosed accommodative dysfunction, convergence insufficiency, visual field loss, or visual acuity loss to the level of legal blindness in TBI patients of any age were included. Univariate metaregression analyses and subgroup analyses were performed to account for statistical heterogeneity.
Twenty-two eligible publications were identified across the four visual conditions. Random-effects models yielded combined prevalence estimates: accommodative dysfunction (42.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 31.3 to 54.7), convergence insufficiency (36.3%; 95% CI, 28.2 to 44.9%), visual field loss (18.2%; 95% CI, 10.6 to 27.1%), and visual acuity loss (0.0%; 95% CI, 0.0 to 1.1%). Metaregression and subgroup analyses revealed that visual field loss was significantly more prevalent in moderate to severe (39.8%; 95% CI, 29.8 to 50.3%) compared with mild TBI (6.6%; 95% CI, 0 to 19.5%).
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF KEY FINDINGS
This study demonstrates that accommodative dysfunction, convergence insufficiency, and visual field loss are common sequelae of TBI. Prospective longitudinal research with rigorous and uniform methodology is needed to better understand short- and long-term effects of TBI on the vision system.