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Merezhinskaya, Natalya PhD; Mallia, Rita K. OD, MPA; Park, DoHwan PhD; Bryden, Daniel W. PhD; Mathur, Karan BS; Barker, Felix M. II OD, MS, FAAO

Visual Deficits and Dysfunctions Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

publication date
May 4, 2019
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This study reports prevalence data combined independently for accommodative dysfunction, convergence insufficiency, visual field loss, and visual acuity loss in patients with traumatic brain injury in the absence of eye injury.



The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence rates of accommodative dysfunction, convergence insufficiency, visual field loss, and visual acuity loss in TBI patients without concomitant eye injury.



The data sources used in this study were PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library.



Publications reporting the prevalence of diagnosed accommodative dysfunction, convergence insufficiency, visual field loss, or visual acuity loss to the level of legal blindness in TBI patients of any age were included. Univariate metaregression analyses and subgroup analyses were performed to account for statistical heterogeneity.



Twenty-two eligible publications were identified across the four visual conditions. Random-effects models yielded combined prevalence estimates: accommodative dysfunction (42.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 31.3 to 54.7), convergence insufficiency (36.3%; 95% CI, 28.2 to 44.9%), visual field loss (18.2%; 95% CI, 10.6 to 27.1%), and visual acuity loss (0.0%; 95% CI, 0.0 to 1.1%). Metaregression and subgroup analyses revealed that visual field loss was significantly more prevalent in moderate to severe (39.8%; 95% CI, 29.8 to 50.3%) compared with mild TBI (6.6%; 95% CI, 0 to 19.5%).



This study demonstrates that accommodative dysfunction, convergence insufficiency, and visual field loss are common sequelae of TBI. Prospective longitudinal research with rigorous and uniform methodology is needed to better understand short- and long-term effects of TBI on the vision system.


Vision therapy is well worth the response, time and effort. Our Son had a hard time focusing and writing neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time if previously took. His abilities to focus improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent, we wanted learning to be fun for our Son, and vision therapy made this possible.

Amanda T.

Vision Therapy is well worth the expense, time and effort. Our son had a hard time focusing handwriting neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time it previously took his abilities to focus and improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent you wanted learning to be fun for our son and vision therapy made this possible.

Alexa H.

Vision Therapy has given or son the tools he needs to be able to scan and read the written word more effectively and efficiently.

He love working with John and these working sessions give him the motivation to gladly work on his homework assignments.

It amazed us to see the difference in the tracking of his eyes and along a line of it's from the beginning to the end of the treatment.

Dr. McBryar , Kristen and John  are all marvelous and we would recommend them to anyone I only wish that we would have found them sooner!

Charlotte M.

Prior to coming to the institute for vision development my son complained of daily headaches. Therapy has eliminated his headaches completely. I love knowing my son is able to learn pain-free for the rest of his life because of the work that has been done over just a few weeks in this office. He he absolutely loved coming that didn't even feel like going to a doctor or therapy. We are grateful for the relief he was able to find by coming here.

Thank you!

Olivia C.

Seems much less frustrated with life

Reads non-stop and fast

Spelling abilities have been hugely improved

Seems much more confident

Thank You!!!

Kelly O.

When we first came to the practice, my son did not have huge issues, but lots of small ones- trouble with reading, sports (hitting the baseball consistently), coordination, etc- that were not easily detectable,but when put together presented issues. The staff here were all very professional and loving towards him. While I was concerned in the reading, my son was concerned with the athletic side. Seeing improvement night off the bat gave him confidence that i have nor seen in him and made him want to not only Come to therapy, but also made him want to work hard. He has surpassed his grade level and above in reading and hit his first home run this year! Thank you!!!

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