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Zhang, Jun PhD, Liu, Jingbo PhD, Jasti, Srichand MS1, Suryakumar, Rajaraman PhD, Bullimore, Mark A. PhD, MCOptom, FAAO

Visual Demand and Acuity Reserve of Chinese versus English Newspapers

publication date
May 25, 2020
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This study suggests that Chinese newspaper characters are more legible than English newspaper letters. Characters in Chinese newspapers have higher acuity reserve than English newspapers.



The purpose of this study was to evaluate visual demand and acuity reserve for Chinese newspapers in comparison with published data on U.S. newspapers.



The test distances for visual acuity in Chinese clinical studies were reviewed systematically. Characters from different sections of newspapers printed in simplified Chinese were evaluated. The character height, frequency, and visual demand and acuity reserve of each newspaper section were determined for Chinese characters of the six different levels of complexity.



More than 70% of Chinese clinical studies measure near visual acuity at either 33 or 40 cm. The height of Chinese characters ranged from 1.95 to 3.28 mm across different sections of five newspapers compared with 1.0 to 2.0 mm for English letters. The frequency of Chinese characters from least to most complex ranged from 7 to 34% across 12 sections of one Chinese newspaper. The angular threshold across the six complexity levels of Chinese characters ranged from 4.62 to 5.93 arcmin (0.54 to 0.69 mm at 40-cm reading distance) with a weighted angular threshold of 5.18 arcmin compared with 3.37 arcmin (0.39 mm) for the English letters. For Chinese newspapers, at 40-cm reading distance, the acuity reserve for the smallest and largest median size was 3.55 and 4.61, respectively.



Chinese characters are larger than English characters in all newspaper sections newspapers by a factor of 1.60 to 2.34. Given that Chinese characters need to be 1.54 times larger than English letters to provide the same acuity reserve, on average, Chinese newspapers are more legible than U.S. English newspapers.


Vision therapy is well worth the response, time and effort. Our Son had a hard time focusing and writing neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time if previously took. His abilities to focus improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent, we wanted learning to be fun for our Son, and vision therapy made this possible.

Amanda T.

Vision Therapy is well worth the expense, time and effort. Our son had a hard time focusing handwriting neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time it previously took his abilities to focus and improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent you wanted learning to be fun for our son and vision therapy made this possible.

Alexa H.

Vision Therapy has given or son the tools he needs to be able to scan and read the written word more effectively and efficiently.

He love working with John and these working sessions give him the motivation to gladly work on his homework assignments.

It amazed us to see the difference in the tracking of his eyes and along a line of it's from the beginning to the end of the treatment.

Dr. McBryar , Kristen and John  are all marvelous and we would recommend them to anyone I only wish that we would have found them sooner!

Charlotte M.

Prior to coming to the institute for vision development my son complained of daily headaches. Therapy has eliminated his headaches completely. I love knowing my son is able to learn pain-free for the rest of his life because of the work that has been done over just a few weeks in this office. He he absolutely loved coming that didn't even feel like going to a doctor or therapy. We are grateful for the relief he was able to find by coming here.

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Seems much less frustrated with life

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Spelling abilities have been hugely improved

Seems much more confident

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When we first came to the practice, my son did not have huge issues, but lots of small ones- trouble with reading, sports (hitting the baseball consistently), coordination, etc- that were not easily detectable,but when put together presented issues. The staff here were all very professional and loving towards him. While I was concerned in the reading, my son was concerned with the athletic side. Seeing improvement night off the bat gave him confidence that i have nor seen in him and made him want to not only Come to therapy, but also made him want to work hard. He has surpassed his grade level and above in reading and hit his first home run this year! Thank you!!!

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