Authors
Satgunam, PremNandhini; Apfelbaum, Henry L.; Peli, Eli

Volume Perimetry Measurement in Depth of Visual Field Loss

publication date
May 14, 2012
Category
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Abstract/Introduction

Purpose

Volume scotomas are three-dimensional regions of space that are not visible to the observer. Volume perimetry maps volume scotomas. Volume scotomas predicted from combining monocular visual fields assume known fixation locus (mainly foveal). However, fixation loci are not always known, especially with central field loss (CFL). Here we demonstrate methods for measuring and calculating volume scotomas and discuss their practical implications.

 

Methods

Three patients (bitemporal hemianopia, binasal scotoma, and CFL) were evaluated. Slices through the volume scotomas were measured at three distances: at the plane of fixation, at a plane anterior to fixation (representing anterior volume perimetry), and at a plane posterior to fixation (representing posterior volume perimetry). For anterior volume perimetry, patients fixated on a screen 100 cm away through a beamsplitter that reflected the perimetric stimulus (at 50 cm). For posterior volume perimetry, patients fixated on a near target (50 cm), while perimetric stimuli were presented on a screen 150 cm beyond fixation. At the plane of fixation, monocular visual fields under binocular viewing conditions were measured using a computerized dichoptic perimeter.


Conclusion/Results

Results

Posterior and anterior volume scotomas were documented in patients with bitemporal hemianopia and binasal scotomas, respectively. The CFL patient demonstrated both anterior and posterior volume scotomas. Scotoma magnitude was considered to determine its effect on visual function.

 

Conclusions

Direct measurement of volume scotomas can be performed. Anterior and posterior volume visual fields can vary substantially from conventional binocular perimetry measured at the fixation plane, revealing blind areas not otherwise identified. These volume scotomas are likely to impair functional vision such as driving (for bitemporal hemianopes) and near work with small hand tools (for binasal scotomas). Patients with CFL will have impaired functional vision for both distance and near tasks. Consideration of volume scotomas can help provide more effective vision rehabilitation and counseling.


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Vision therapy is well worth the response, time and effort. Our Son had a hard time focusing and writing neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time if previously took. His abilities to focus improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent, we wanted learning to be fun for our Son, and vision therapy made this possible.


Amanda T.

Vision Therapy is well worth the expense, time and effort. Our son had a hard time focusing handwriting neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time it previously took his abilities to focus and improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

Also, he was better at listening. As a parent you wanted learning to be fun for our son and vision therapy made this possible.


Alexa H.

Vision Therapy has given or son the tools he needs to be able to scan and read the written word more effectively and efficiently.

He love working with John and these working sessions give him the motivation to gladly work on his homework assignments.

It amazed us to see the difference in the tracking of his eyes and along a line of it's from the beginning to the end of the treatment.

Dr. McBryar , Kristen and John  are all marvelous and we would recommend them to anyone I only wish that we would have found them sooner!


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Prior to coming to the institute for vision development my son complained of daily headaches. Therapy has eliminated his headaches completely. I love knowing my son is able to learn pain-free for the rest of his life because of the work that has been done over just a few weeks in this office. He he absolutely loved coming that didn't even feel like going to a doctor or therapy. We are grateful for the relief he was able to find by coming here.

Thank you!


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Seems much less frustrated with life

Reads non-stop and fast

Spelling abilities have been hugely improved

Seems much more confident

Thank You!!!


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When we first came to the practice, my son did not have huge issues, but lots of small ones- trouble with reading, sports (hitting the baseball consistently), coordination, etc- that were not easily detectable,but when put together presented issues. The staff here were all very professional and loving towards him. While I was concerned in the reading, my son was concerned with the athletic side. Seeing improvement night off the bat gave him confidence that i have nor seen in him and made him want to not only Come to therapy, but also made him want to work hard. He has surpassed his grade level and above in reading and hit his first home run this year! Thank you!!!


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