Authors
Mondero, Nicholas E.; Crotty, Russell J.; West, Roger W.

Was Rembrandt Strabismic?

publication date
Category
see more

Abstract/Introduction

Purpose 

We studied a set of Rembrandt’s self-portraits to reassess a previous claim, based on measurements of the centration of his painted irises, that Rembrandt had a large exotropia.

 

Methods 

Of the 24 self-portraits that Rembrandt painted, with significant ocular detail to give an impression of the direction of his gaze, we scanned 10; the five with the largest difference in centration between the irises and the five with the smallest difference. The right and left eyes in each image were then occluded using Photoshop to produce two additional images that gave monocular gaze. Thirty observers then judged where the portraits appeared to be gazing within the plane of their face.


Conclusion/Results

Results 

Although our observers did judge a significant outward deviation for gaze between the two eyes, part of this was caused by an outward deviation from central by the presumably nonstrabismic eye. Any greater amount of outward deviation from the “strabismic” than the nonstrabismic eye can then be explained by a gaze overshoot induced by head turn, painting with a mirror, and angle kappas. In addition, Rembrandt’s apparent strabismus is seen only in those portraits painted during a few years early in his career, and portraits that Rembrandt and his students produced of other presumably nonstrabismic individuals often give a similar impression of strabismus.

 

Conclusions 

There are several factors that can explain why some of Rembrandt’s self-portraits make him look strabismic without concluding that he actually was. Rembrandt and his students may also have painted this appearance as an artistic style.


Testimonials


  • Vision therapy is well worth the response, time and effort. Our Son had a hard time focusing and writing neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time if previously took. His abilities to focus improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

    Also, he was better at listening. As a parent, we wanted learning to be fun for our Son, and vision therapy made this possible.


    Amanda T.

  • Vision Therapy is well worth the expense, time and effort. Our son had a hard time focusing handwriting neatly. After vision therapy Seth could complete a task in half the time it previously took his abilities to focus and improved greatly and so did his handwriting.

    Also, he was better at listening. As a parent you wanted learning to be fun for our son and vision therapy made this possible.


    Alexa H.

  • Vision Therapy has given or son the tools he needs to be able to scan and read the written word more effectively and efficiently.

    He love working with John and these working sessions give him the motivation to gladly work on his homework assignments.

    It amazed us to see the difference in the tracking of his eyes and along a line of it's from the beginning to the end of the treatment.

    Dr. McBryar , Kristen and John  are all marvelous and we would recommend them to anyone I only wish that we would have found them sooner!


    Charlotte M.

  • Prior to coming to the institute for vision development my son complained of daily headaches. Therapy has eliminated his headaches completely. I love knowing my son is able to learn pain-free for the rest of his life because of the work that has been done over just a few weeks in this office. He he absolutely loved coming that didn't even feel like going to a doctor or therapy. We are grateful for the relief he was able to find by coming here.

    Thank you!


    Olivia C.

  • Seems much less frustrated with life

    Reads non-stop and fast

    Spelling abilities have been hugely improved

    Seems much more confident

    Thank You!!!


    Kelly O.

Blog

group-of-small-nursery-school-children-with-teache-W2UF5RU

Vision Among Us

One of the challenges with visual impairments and visual deficits is that it's difficult to detect them just by looking […]

Read More
frustrated-millennial-businessman-having-strong-headache-tired-from-laptop-work

Vision Therapy for Neurological Conditions

Each year an estimated 1.5 million Americans sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI). According to the Neuro Optometric Rehabilitation Association, […]

Read More
DSC_2077

Vision Therapy for Adults

Adults generally accept changes in themselves as part of aging, and think that there's nothing they can do about it. […]

Read More
see all blogs

Contact Us To Amplify Your EyeCare

Working Hours

Monday - Thursday
8:00 am - 5:15pm
friday-sunday
Closed
Location
1043 Executive Drive Suite #101 Hixson, TN 37343
Website Accessibility Policy
Safety protocols page
phone-handsetarrow-uparrow-right linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram